Akademisk Radioklubb

LA1K / LA1ARK / LA1UKA

Category: Guides

Measuring coax length with burst generator and oscilloscope

I have quite long Aircell 7 cable that I would like to know the length of, but didn’t want to uncoil. This is a good opportunity to showcase a technique for measuring the length and attenuation of a coaxial cable, using a function generator and an oscilloscope.

Fig 1: Time delay for RG58 patch cable

Measurement background

Using a function generator in burst mode we can measure the reflection from the open end of a coaxial cable. An oscilloscope is connected through a t-junction between the function generator and the test cable. Since the internal resistance of the oscilloscope is high, and current prefers the path of least resistance, and the burst signal will travel to the coaxial cable. A small amount of the signal will coupled to the oscilloscope. We denote this as the incident voltage, U.
Upon reaching the open end of the cable, the wave will reflect and travel back towards the function generator. As the wave passes the oscilloscope a small amount will be coupled. We denote this as the reflected voltage, Ur. The reflected wave finally dissipates when it reaches the function generator.

This is very similar to tying a rope to a pole, swinging it and having the rope reflect back.

Fig 2: Measurement setup

The time difference between Uand Ur is the time it takes for the wave to propagate to the open end of the coax and back again. Using this we can calculate the length of the coaxial cable using the following formula:

Vf is the velocity factor of the coaxial cable and c is the speed of light. Since the time between incident and reflected is the round-trip time we divide the result by two.

By seeing how much the voltage has dropped on the reflected wave relative to the incident wave we can calculate how much loss the coax has at generator frequency. Since the reflected wave passes through the cable twice we should divide by two to find the one-way attenuation.

Some measurements

As mentioned, I have quite long Aircell 7 cable that I would like to know the length of, but didn’t want to uncoil. To keep everything neat I used a short RG58 cable to patch it together. This is the setup shown in figure 2.

The two cables are made using different dielectrics, and will have different velocity factors.  Aircell 7 has a Vf of 0.83, RG58 has a Vf of 0.66. To account for this we should first measure the delay and attenuation caused by the RG58, and then subtract that contribution from the Aircell 7 measurement.

To be able to measure on the short RG58 cable I am using a 1 cycle 100 MHz sine wave burst. The burst is set up to repeat every second, this means that any remaining oscillations should have fully died out. A generator frequency of 10 MHz is sufficient to get accurate results, but only if the cable you are measuring is longer than 20 m.

Fig 3: Unknown length Aircell 7

Fig 4: Voltage drop of RG58 patch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figures 1 and 4 show the measurement results from the RG58 patch, we put the results into the formula and get the following results:

I also measured the RG58 coax with a measuring tape, and found the physical length to be 1.55 m.

Fig 5: Voltage drop Aircell 7

Fig 6: Time delay Aircell 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finally using the results from figures 5 and 6 we find the length and attenuation of the Aircell 7 cable

In conclusion this method is a quick and efficient way to measure the loss and length of a coaxial cable. If you have a broken cable the breakage point will also reflect, so this can be a very useful tool to pinpoint where you need to mend the cable.
It should also be said that the accuracy of this method depends largely on the accuracy of the velocity factor given in manufacturer specifications, meter order deviations can easily arise from a wrong spec. The influence of the oscilloscope could also matter, some people connect 10X or 100X probes to the t-junction for these measurements, I found it to be fine using just the internal impedance.

Introduction to the libpredict API

libpredict is an ANSI C library for predicting satellite orbits based on TLEs, developed by ARK. This was primarily developed for use in flyby, but can also be useful on its own. If you just want to track a satellite, flyby is usually a better choice, but if you want to go down to a deeper level and be able to apply satellite prediction to more advanced and complex usecases in a more flexible way, libpredict might be suitable.

The goal of libpredict was mainly to separate the satellite calculations from predict for use in its fork, flyby, and enable reuse of the API in other satellite applications. C implementation became a requirement due to the well-defined binary compatibility for C libraries and the use of C in both predict and flyby. While the core routines are in C, we will also at some point be providing high-level bindings for other languages like python. See also: Development of flyby and libpredict.

This post outlines in detail how libpredict can be used to track satellites in a programming language, and is long and technical and probably mostly for those with special interest in the topic. If life gets too frustrating and boring, you can scroll down to the plots and rest your eyes on colorful satellite tracks:-). An earlier post, Satellite tracking using flyby, gives a top-down motivation for why we are doing this at all and a more user-friendly approach to satellite tracking.

Continue reading

Satellite tracking using flyby

A lot of satellites typically have beacons, interesting data transmitters or transponders that can be received or used by radio amateurs. Knowing when and where the satellites are passing overhead is essential. Flyby, through its companion library libpredict, is a software package for estimating such satellite positions. See also: Development of flyby and libpredict.

Exact calculation of the position of the satellites in complicated gravitational fields is very difficult, so simplified perturbation models are generally used. The exact position and other parameters of the satellite is measured (typically by NORAD) at a given time (epoch time). These properties can then be estimated at other times by using a simple gravity model for earth, and including the more complicated gravitational effects from earth and deeper space using perturbation theory. Given updated parameters and “small” time differences from the epoch time (less than a couple of weeks is probably good enough), we can generally predict the position of the satellite to a high enough accuracy that we can point our antennas towards the predicted position and expect the satellite to be there. The set of measured parameters (after being crunched through a related model) is called a TLE, while the prediction model is called SGP4/SDP4. The details on this are not really that important, you can generally assume that a TLE corresponds to a satellite, and that it can be used to calculate a time-dependent position using the appropriate prediction software.

The satellite is speeding overhead while we are approximately standing at rest. The electromagnetic waves transmitted by the satellite will therefore be doppler shifted when we receive them. The satellite transmits at a specific frequency known a priori, but the received frequency is shifted significantly and will change continuously as the satellite passes overhead. The satellite will experience the same thing with respect to our transmitted frequency if we are transmitting anything towards it. Without proper correction of our transmitted signal, the satellite might not even receive anything within its fixed frequency range. In addition to pointing the antenna in the right direction, it is therefore important to also adjust the frequencies correctly. Flyby does both, using the satellite prediction library libpredict, and can automatically communicate the frequency and position changes to a rig and antenna controller using hamlib.

This post will outline the steps involved from compiling Flyby to tracking satellites. Continue reading